The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a publication of NEJM Group — Owned & Published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.

President
Carole E. Allen, M.D., M.B.A.
Executive Vice President
Lois Dehls Cornell
NEJM Group Editor
Jeffrey M. Drazen, M.D.
Vice President, NEJM Group
David Sampson
NEJM Group Advisor
Christopher R. Lynch

The Committee on Publications of the Massachusetts Medical Society

Chair
James A. Feldman, M.D.
Vice Chair
Burt A. Adelman, M.D.

Edward W. Boyer, M.D., James Diao, Henry L. Dorkin, M.D., Subramanyan Jayasankar, M.D., Tony Joudi, James Luo, M.D., Nora Osman, M.D., Paul M. Ridker, M.D., Schlomit Schaal, M.D., J. Kevin Tucker, M.D., Steven Young, M.D., Carole E. Allen, M.D., ex officio, Theodore A. Calianos II, M.D., ex officio, Barbara S. Spivak, M.D., ex officio, Lynda G. Kabbash, M.D., ex officio, Lee S. Perrin, M.D., ex officio

Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Eric J. Rubin, M.D., Ph.D.
Executive Editor
Mary Beth Hamel, M.D., M.P.H.
Deputy Editor
Lindsey R. Baden, M.D.
Deputy Editor
Julie R. Ingelfinger, M.D.
Deputy Editor
John A. Jarcho, M.D.
Deputy Editor
Dan L. Longo, M.D.
Deputy Editor
Elizabeth G. Phimister, Ph.D.
Deputy Editor
Allan H. Ropper, M.D.
Deputy Editor
Caren G. Solomon, M.D., M.P.H.
Deputy Editor
Darren B. Taichman, M.D., Ph.D.
Deputy Editor
Winfred W. Williams, M.D.
Associate Editor
Arnold M. Epstein, M.D., M.A.
Associate Editor
Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao, M.D.
Associate Editor
Ellen M. Gravallese, M.D.
Associate Editor
Michael F. Greene, M.D.
Associate Editor
John F. Keaney, Jr., M.D.
Associate Editor
Clifford J. Rosen, M.D.
Associate Editor
Gary Wong, M.D., F.R.C.P.C.
Associate Editor
Rui?Ping Xiao, M.D., Ph.D.
Lead Statistical Editor
David Harrington, Ph.D.
Statistical Editor
Constantine Gatsonis, Ph.D.
Statistical Editor
Joseph W. Hogan, Sc.D.
Statistical Editor
David J. Hunter, M.B., B.S., M.P.H., Sc.D.
Statistical Editor
Sharon-Lise T. Normand, Ph.D.
Executive Managing Editor
Stephen Morrissey, Ph.D.
Perspective Editor
Debra Malina, Ph.D.
National Correspondent
Lisa S. Rosenbaum, M.D.
International Correspondent
Charlotte J. Haug, M.D., Ph.D.
CME Editor
Carla S. Rothaus, M.D.
Images Editor
Chana A. Sacks, M.D.
Reviews Editors
C. Corey Hardin, M.D., Ph.D., Dan L. Longo, M.D.
Editors-at-Large
Joseph Loscalzo, M.D., Ph.D., Richard P. Wenzel, M.D., M.Sc.
Pamela W. Miller Editorial Fellows
Jehan F. Chowdhury, D.O., Siri R. Kadire, M.D., James O’Connell, M.D.

Editorial Board

Salim S. Abdool Karim, M.B., Ch.B., Ph.D., Durban, David Blumenthal, M.D., M.P.P., New York, Michele K. Evans, M.D., Bethesda, Jeremy J. Farrar, M.D., Ph.D., London, Sandy Feng, M.D., Ph.D., San Francisco, Harvey V. Fineberg, M.D., Ph.D., San Francisco, Isaac S. Kohane, M.D., Ph.D., Boston, Thomas H. Lee, M.D., Boston, Jeffrey A. Lieberman, M.D., New York, John McMurray, M.D., Glasgow, Trevor Mundel, M.D., Ph.D., Seattle, Vlado Perkovic, M.B., B.S, Ph.D., Sydney, Sonja A. Rasmussen, M.D., Gainesville, Laura E. Riley, M.D, New York, Selwyn O. Rogers, Jr., M.D., M.P.H., Chicago, William J. Sandborn, Jr., M.D., San Diego, Richard L. Schilsky, M.D., Chicago, Christine Van Broeckhoven, Ph.D., D.Sc., Antwerp

Editorial Operations

Director of Editorial Operations
Patrick C. Hannon

Karen Daly, Manager of Editorial Office Services, Lauren Lindenfelser, Manager of Editorial Administration, Maria Sedjo, Assistant to the Editor, Briana Doherty, Senior Editorial Coordinator, Jacqueline Cote, Grace Hansen-Dewar, Jennifer Lewis, Editorial Coordinators, Alex Marie Lombino, Senior Editorial Assistant, Vivian Vu, Editorial Assistant, Patience Kayira, Manuscript Assistant

Online Editorial Group

Assistant Managing Editor, Online
Lisa Scott

Andrea Graham, Manager of Online Editorial Production, David Lyons, Electronic Content Specialist, Julie Evers, Senior Web Production Specialist

Manuscript Editing

Director of Manuscript Editing
Margaret Perkins

Deborah Moskowitz, Manager of Manuscript Editing, Deborah Stone, Quality Assurance Manager, Claudette Dawes, Manager of Manuscript Processing, Cynthia Hastings, Senior Manuscript and Production Editor, India Koopman, Senior Multimedia Editor, Dan Fields, Lindsay Guth, Sharon Hirschland, Elizabeth Bales, Mary Prince, Leahanne Sarlo, Donald Smith, Senior Manuscript Editors, Vanessa Lord, Amy Schulz, Allison Weaver, Manuscript Editors, James MacDonald, Copy Editor, Jessica Derby, Editorial Copy Specialist, Jeffrey Allen, Ethel Garvin, Senior Proofreaders

Graphic Arts

Graphic Arts Director
Kathy Stern

Jennifer Moses, Manager of Editorial Premedia, Timothy Vining, Manager of Medical and Scientific Illustration, Darah Whelihan, XML Processing Manager, Alison E. Burke, Kimberly Knoper, Natalie Koscal, Scott Leighton, Lori Messenger, Scott Williams, Senior Scientific/Medical Illustrators, Daniel Müller, Interactive Medical Media Designer, Tomoko Shibusawa, Senior Information Graphics Specialist, Jeff Seals, Interactive Medical Visualization Developer, Michael Tomases, Media Specialist, Richard Waring, Senior Layout Artist

Editorial Production Technology

Director of Editorial Production Technology
John E. Muenning

Ellen Duff, Editorial Metadata Manager, Elizabeth Quilty, Manager of Editorial Scheduling and Tracking

Perspective Group

Debra Malina, Ph.D., Stephen Morrissey, Ph.D.

Assistant Perspective Editor
Genevra Pittman
Perspective Advisory Board
David S. Jones, M.D., Ph.D., Aaron S. Kesselheim, M.D., J.D., M.P.H., Eric C. Schneider, M.D., Debra F. Weinstein, M.D.